Upper-Lip Frenum as a Predictive Marker for Unexpected and Unexplained Asphyxia in Infants

Objective: To determine if there is a relationship between restricted upper-lip frenums (upper lip ties) and unexpected and unexplained asphyxia (UUA) in infants.

Methods: A retrospective review was done of 327 UUA cases from Miami-Dade County, FL and Harris County, TX. Using autopsy photos, upper-lip frenums were classified by degree of restriction. Statistical analysis was done to compare the occurrence of restricted upper-lip frenums in this UUA population to a baseline for the general population. The difference was statistically significant at the 99% confidence level.

Conclusion: There is a very strong statistical correlation between restricted upper-lip frenums and UUA infant deaths.


Leslie A Haller and Theodore Brown

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Journal of Rare Disorders: Diagnosis & Therapy received 158 citations as per google scholar report

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