Managing Editor, Journal Rare Disorders: Diagnosis & Therapy, United Kingdom
Received Date: March 23, 2021; Accepted Date: April 16, 2021; Published Date: April 23, 2021
Citation: Roberts S (2021) Editorial on Breast cancer. J Rare Disord Diagn Ther Vol.7 No.4:15.
Breast cancer is the most usual invasive cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer. Breast cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the breast or can be defined as a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. Researchers have identified hormonal, lifestyle and environmental factors that may increase your risk of breast cancer. Specific mutations in genes called HER2, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and p53 have been linked to breast cancer; these mutations may be inherited or acquired.
There are many different types of breast cancer and common ones include ductal carcinoma in situ (The cancer cells grow outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue) and invasive carcinoma (Cancer cells spread from the lobules to the breast tissues that are close by). Others, like phyllodes tumors and angiosarcoma are less common. Rare forms of breast cancer include Paget disease and inflammatory carcinoma [1-6].
The symptoms includes: a breast lump, change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast, skin dimpling, breast or nipple pain, nipple retraction, nipple discharge, swollen lymph nodes in the neck or armpit, peeling, scaling, or flaking of skin on your nipple or breast, a lump or swelling under your arm.
The risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include: being female, increasing age, a personal history of breast conditions, a personal history of breast cancer, a family history of breast cancer, inherited genes that increase cancer risk, radiation exposure, obesity, beginning your period at a younger age, beginning menopause at an older age, having never been pregnant, having your first child at an older age, postmenopausal hormone therapy and drinking alcohol etc.
Some changes in your daily life may help reduce your risk of breast cancer.
1. Ask your doctor about breast cancer screening.
2. Become familiar with your breasts through breast selfexam selfexam for breast awareness.
3. Drink alcohol in moderation.
4. Exercise most days of the week.
5. Limit postmenopausal hormone therapy
Diagnosing Breast Cancer
Tests and procedures used to diagnose breast cancer include: Breast exam, Mammogram, Breast ultrasound, Removing a sample of breast cells for testing (biopsy), Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Your breast cancer’s stage, how far it has invaded (if it has), and how big the tumor has grown all play a large part in determining what kind of treatment you’ll need and your doctor determines your breast cancer treatment options based on your type of breast cancer, its stage and grade, size, and whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones. Breast cancer surgery Operations used to treat breast cancer include:
1. Lumpectomy: Removing the breast cancer
2. Mastectomy: Removing the entire breast
3. Sentinel Node Biopsy: Removing a limited number of lymph nodes
4. Axillary Lymph Node Dissection: Removing several lymph nodes
5. Axillary lymph node dissection: Removing several lymph nodes
6. Removing both breasts
Other includes radiation therapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy drugs immunotherapy and supportive (palliative) care.