Managing Editor, Journal Rare Disorders: Diagnosis & Therapy, United Kingdom
Received Date: May 05, 2021; Accepted Date: May 17, 2021; Published Date: May 28, 2021
Citation: Roberts S (2021) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Rare Disorders Diagnosis & Therapy. Vol. 7 No. 5: 3.
Attention Deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder in children. Boys are more likely to have it than girls. ADHD can't be prevented or cured. But spotting it early, plus having a good treatment and education plan, can help a child or adult with ADHD manage their symptoms [1-3].
Types of ADHD
Inattention: Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized.
Hyperactivity: Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly.
Impulsivity: Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them.
The primary features of ADHD include inattention and hyperactiveimpulsive behavior.
Inattention Symptoms: Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading, appear not to listen, even when spoken to directly, not follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, lose items needed for tasks or activities, be easily distracted by unrelated thoughts and be forgetful in daily activities.
Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Symptoms: Have difficulty staying seated in the classroom or in other situations, be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly, talk too much, have difficulty waiting for his or her turn, interrupt or intrude on others' conversations.
Factors that may be involved in the development of ADHD include genetics, the environment or problems with the central nervous system at key moments in development.
Doctors diagnose ADHD in children and teens after discussing symptoms at length with the child, parents, and teachers, and then observing the child's behaviors. Doctors use the American Psychiatric Association’s guidelines, which are based on how many symptoms a person has and how long they’ve had them. To confirm a diagnosis of ADHD or learning differences, a child may take a battery of tests to check their neurological and psychological status.
1. A medical and social history of both the child and the family.
2. A physical exam and neurological assessment that includes screenings of vision, hearing, and verbal and motor skills.
3. An evaluation of intelligence, aptitude, personality traits, or processing skills.
4. A scan called the Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System, which measures theta and beta brain waves.
Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.
Medication: ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Medication also may improve physical coordination.
Psychotherapy and Psychosocial Interventions: These treatments focus on changing behavior Special education, Behavior modification, Psychotherapy and Social skills training.
Support groups: People with similar problems and needs can help you learn more about ADHD and how to manage your symptoms.